All Stars programs are designed to prevent, reduce or eliminate negative behaviors and promote positive behaviors. Each All Stars program, and every session and activity within All Stars achieves these goals by changing qualities that account for why young people engage in these behaviors. The various All Stars programs address the following concepts to one degree or another:
Beliefs about Consequences –
Behaviors have consequences. The consequences young people pay attention to are short-term (they happen immediately or shortly after the behavior) and they are psychological and social in nature. Teens tend to not pay attention to severe health outcomes, which are seen as unlikely to happen. This topic is addressed in all programs.
This refers to attachments that form between individuals and social institutions to which they belong. Prosocial groups are those which disapprove of substance use, violence, and premature sexual activity. Students who associate with and feel accepted by such institutions such as a school, church, recreation group, or sports team are protected from experimenting with and engaging in high_risk behaviors. All programs promote bonding to school or to the sponsoring organization.
Commitment to Not Use or Reduce Use –
Young people who make public and private commitments to their vision of the future are motivated to avoid situations that put them at risk. A commitment is an internalized intention which results in a voluntary public expression of one’s intention not to participate in substance use, violence, or premature sexual activity. All Stars Core, Booster, Plus and Senior address commitment.
Decision Making and Impulsivity Control –
Many young people who engage in risky behaviors act on impulse and have few skills for making reasoned decisions. Learning steps for making decisions, learning how to listen to your conscience, and practicing these help students discover alternatives, weigh consequences and make appropriate choices. A focus on decision making and impulsivity control is addressed in All Stars Plus and All Stars Senior.
Goal Setting –
Many young people do not know the steps to take to achieve goals. Even when they have an ideal they wish to strive for, knowing how to take action and persisting despite experiencing setbacks and obstacles helps young people maintain a sense of idealism. Goal setting is actively addressed in All Stars Plus and All Stars Senior.
Young people who have a clear vision of their future understand that high_risk behaviors interfere with their life goals. Idealism refers to identifying and understanding what is important and recognizing that drug use and other risky behaviors would interfere with achieving what is important. Idealism is addressed in all programs.
When everyone in a peer group agrees that high_risk behaviors are stupid, dumb, unpopular, and unacceptable to others, they understand that avoiding these behaviors will help them fit in. There are two parts to positive norms. The first part is related to what young people believe about their peer group. Young people, particularly those at risk, exaggerate how common and acceptable drug use and other risky behaviors are. Correcting erroneous perceptions reduces risks. The second part of positive norms is actually establishing a group norm that supports the non-use of substances, cooperation instead of fighting, and positive social relationships that postpones sexual activity. Building positive norms is addressed in all of the All Stars programs.
Parental Attentiveness –
Parents can help their children to become highly motivated to avoid high risk behaviors. Parents are most effective at preventing risky behaviors and promoting healthy behaviors when they: understand growth and development, regularly express love and affection, promote involvement in the community, set clear standards, monitor and supervise their child’s friends and activities, provide appropriate discipline when needed, and when they set a positive example. Increasing parental attentiveness is addressed in All Stars Core, Booster, and Plus.
Resistance Skills Training –
It is rare, but there are occasions when peer pressure can be overt. Knowing how to refuse dares and unwanted invitations to participate in risky behavior helps young people deal with this pressure. Research suggests it is especially important for young people who already have experience with substance use, violence, and sexual activity avoid relapse when they find themselves in risky situations. Resistance skills training includes teaching students to stand up for themselves, ask for what they want, express themselves, and say no when they want to without being passive or aggressive. This concept is addressed in All Stars Plus and All Stars Senior.
When young people experience anger and stress, they often respond in maladaptive ways. Stress management seems to be a particularly important skill for people who are trying to break bad habits such as smoking and drinking. These skills are addressed in All Stars Senior.
All Stars Goals
Session 1: Program Orientation (Class/Paper Analysis)
· To have students understand basic information about All Stars, develop trust toward the facilitator, and become enthusiastic about participating in All Stars.
Session 2: The World of the Future (Class)
· To get students to think about their heritage, identify and prioritize personal ideals that will reflect high aspirations and a positive view of the future, and understand that their peers have similar positive ideals.
Session 3: Understanding What is Important (Class)
· To have the students understand that what is important to them does not fit with living a life that includes risky behaviors.
Session 4: Planning for the Future (Class)
· To have the students think about their heritage, identify and prioritize personal ideals that will reflect high aspirations and a positive view of the future, and understand that their peers have similar positive ideals.
Session 5: Make Your Mark (Class)
· To have the students develop personal symbols that incorporate positive ideals and a personal motto that will remind them of their positive ideals.
Session 6: Ideals-Based Reputations (Class)
· The goals of this session are (1) to have the students understand what social and psychological consequences of high-risk behaviors are important for them to avoid, (2) to help the students have a strong desire to avoid the personal consequences associated with high-risk behaviors, and (3) to have the students consciously begin to develop personal reputations that protect them from engaging in high-risk behaviors.
Session 7: Habits that Support Ideals
· To have students develop habits that support good reputations and that are incongruent with risky behaviors.
Session 8: Opinion Poll Game
· The goal of this session is to cause students to understand that high-risk behaviors are unacceptable to the peer group.
Session 9: Norms – Unwritten Rules of Behavior (Class)
· The purpose of this session is (1) to cause students to understand that their peers make constant judgments about their behavior, even when such judgments are not spoken, and (2) to have them understand that voluntary group standards of good citizenship are established, including avoidance of substance use, violence, and premature sexual activity.
Session 10: Opinion Poll Game Rematch (Class)
· The goal of this session is to have the students understand that high-risk behaviors are unacceptable to the peer group.
Session 11: Commitment (Class)
· The goal of this session is to motivate the students to make and keep commitments. The students will develop generic skills for keeping commitments.
Session 12: Defending Commitments (Class)
· The goal of this session is to help students develop an attitude and habits that will support keeping their commitments.
Session 13: Proclaiming Commitments (Class)
· The goal of this session is for students to avoid high-risk behaviors by expressing positive commitments publicly.
Session 14: Celebration (Class)
· The goal of this session is to create memories of youth’s participation in All Stars that will inspire them when they are challenged in the future.